The people of Russia suffered just as much. To feed the urban workers and maintain war production, peasants were forced to hand over their grain surpluses at prices determined by the state. Those who resisted were shot.
Whole villages were wiped out if they failed to hand over their grain to the Checka.
In the worst cases, they also removed the seed grain the peasants needed for planting the following year. At a time of rebellion and drought, this desperate policy lead to another five million deaths.
Trotsky put it in such terms, of the Civil War, 'We got victory in the Civil War, the price was we ruined the country.'
Russian Revolution in Color (DVD)
The Russian Revolution and Civil War, this bloodsoaked time from the battlefields, testimonies, and colorized archives help unfold the dramatic story of the Communist rise and seizure of power in 1917.